The University of Bologna (Italian: Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in Europe, the word 'university' being first used by this institution at its foundation. The true date of its founding is uncertain, but believed by most accounts to have been 1088. Since 2000, the University's motto has been Alma mater studiorum (Latin for "fostering mother of studies"). The university of Bologna received a charter from Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158, but in the 19th century, a committee of historians led by Giosuè Carducci traced the birth of the University back to 1088, making it arguably the oldest university in the world. The university is historically notable for its teaching of canon and civil law.
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